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  ADSL

Stands for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. If you use ADSL, the central office will be connected to each home directly in a 1:1 method. In a down-link where data is transferred downward from the central office to the users, high-speed data communications of at least 1.5 Mb can be made. On the contrary, in an up-link from the users to the central office, communications are made very slowly. Thus, this service is called an asymmetrical service not a symmetrical service.

  AP-VPMS

Stands for VoIP Plug & Play Management Software. This integrated management software developed by AddPac Technology enables VoIP products to be installed in a GUI environment, be monitored in real-time, or to be upgraded. This software also enables network administration.

  API

Stands for Application Programming Interface. API is a function call legend standard that defines service interfaces.

  APOS

Stands for AddPac Internetworking Operation System. This is an operating system that supports the network products developed by AddPac Technology.

  ATM

Stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode. This is an international cell relay standard for providing a variety of services such as voice, video, and data in the form of a cell of a fixed length (53 bytes). If you use a fixed-length cell, cell processing will be performed in the hardware; thus, transmission delay can be reduced. ATM is designed to make use of high-speed transmission media such as E3, SONET, and T3.

  ATM High-Speed National Network

This network has been commercialized by the Korean government since 1993. The high-speed national network designed for governmental offices provides data services (transport network services) and Internet services. Data services are categorized into ATM, dedicated lines, packet exchange, and frame relay services. Internet services are categorized into Internet multi-services provided through ATM connection circuits and simple Internet services.

  ATM Forum

This is an international organization founded by Cisco Systems, NET/ADAPTIVE, Northern Telecom, and Sprint in 1991 to reach the agreement of a standard for ATM technologies. ATM Forum expands the formal standards developed by ANSI and ITU-T and the agreements on the implementation of technologies.

  Authentication

Operation of verifying the identification of a person or a process. This is a security feature.

  BNC Connector

This is a standard connector used to connect IEEE 802.3 10Base-2 coaxial cables to Media Access Unit (MAU).

  Boot Loader

This is a chip installed into a printed circuit board used to send executable boot commands to a network device.

  Bps

Stands Bits per second. Typically called bps. Refer to bit rate.

  Cable Modem

This device converts analog signals to digital signals in order to enable the Internet through a cable network. Since telephone networks are made of copper wires and cable networks are made of coaxial and optical cables, the bandwidth of cable networks are much wider than that of telephone networks. However, the modulation/demodulation technology, which converts digital to analog and vice versa, is required for cable networks when data is transferred.

  Call Center

Call Center is a central place where calls from customers and other people are processed systematically. Computer automation is implemented in Call Center to some degree. Typically, Call Center processes many calls simultaneously, categorizes calls, connects the calls to personnel, and records calling logs automatically. Call Center is typically used for mail order catalog firms, telemarketing firms, customer centers for PC products, and large enterprises that sell products or provide services.

  Caller ID

Caller ID is a call service that enables the phone number of the caller to be sent to the recipient. To see the phone number, a digital reader should be installed into the phone.

  Category 5 cabling

One of the five-level UTP cable connection methods specified by the EIA/TIA-586 standard. Category 5 cabling enables data to be transferred at a rate of up to 100Mbps.

  CBR

Stands for Constant Bit Rate. The ATM network QoS class CBR defined by ATM Forum is used for a connection device that is based on a precise clock processing method to ensure untwisted data transfer.

  CES

Stands for Circuit Emulation Service. This service allows you to multiplex multiple line emulation streams for voice and video with packet data through a single high-speed ATM link without using a separate ATM access multiplexer.

  Checksum

This is a method for checking the integrity of transferred data. Checksum is an integer calculated from the octet sequence obtained by a series of operations. This value is calculated by the recipient again for verification.

  Coaxial cable

This coaxial cable is made of an external cylinder-type conductor that wraps an internal wire conductor. Examples of the coaxial cables used for LAN include 50Ω cables used for digital signal processing and 75Ω cables used for high-speed digital signal processing.

  CODEC

Stands for COder-DECoder. CODEC is: 1. A built-in circuit device that converts analog signals to digital bit streams and vice versa based on a pulse code modulation method; 2. A DSP software algorithm that compresses or decompresses voice or audio signals over Voice over IP, Voice over Frame Relay, or Voice over ATM.

  Console

A DTE interface through which a command enters a host

  CoS

Stands for Class of Service. CoS refers to the standard method that enables a higher-level protocol to make a lower-level protocol process messages. For the SNA lower-level area routing, CoS is used to determine the optional path for lower-level area nodes to set a given session. CoS consists of a virtual path number and a transmission priority field. Also called ToS

  Decryption

Decryption means restoring data to the original non-encrypted state by applying the encryption algorithm to the encrypted data in reverse.

  DHCP

Stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. DHCP has a mechanism that reassigns an IP address dynamically in order for the host to recycle unnecessary IP addresses.

  DNS

Stands for Domain Name Server. This is a server system used for the Internet to convert the name of a network node name to an address.

  DS-3

Stands for Digital Signal level 3. This is a frame processing standard used to transmit digital signals at a rate of T3 (44.736Mbps).

  DSP

Stands for Digital Signal Processor. This is a dedicated processor that processes only digital signals. DSP is used as a sub-processor for voice processing in NEXT.

  DTMF

Stands for Dual Tone MultiFrequency. Two voice-band tones are simultaneously used for dialing (just like touch tones).

  E&M

Stands for either recEive and transmit or Ear and Mouth. Typically, this is a trunking device used for switch-to-switch or switch-to-network two-way communications. The analog E&M interface of Cisco is a RJ-48 connector for PBX trunk lines. E&M is available for E1/T1 digital interfaces.

  E1

This is a wide area digital transmission technique used mainly in Europe. E1 enables data transfer at a rate of 2,048Mbps. E1 can be lent by regular service providers for a private use.

  Encryption

Encryption means that a specific algorithm is applied to data in order to convert data to a form that unauthorized users cannot identify.

  Ethernet

Baseband LAN standard initiated by Xerox Corporation and co-developed by Xerox, Intel, and DEC. CSMA/CD is used for Ethernet networks, which operate through a variety of cables at a rate of 10Mbps. Ethernet is similar to the IEEE 802.3 standard. Refer to 10Base-2, 10Base5, 10Base-F, 10Base-T, 10Broad-36, Fast Ethernet, and IEEE 802.3.

  FAX

Abbreviation of Facsimile. FAX refers to the transmission of scanned texts or images to a printer or an output device connected to another phone number by using a telephone line. Once the original document is read by a facsimile, the facsimile treats the document as a fixed graphic image, and converts it to bitmap. In this digital form, data is transferred in the form of an electrical signal through a phone system. The receiving facsimile restores the data to a encoded image, and prints it on a sheet of paper.

  Frame

Logical group of data transferred to a data link layer unit through a transmission medium. From frames, the header and trailer that include user data are important. Headers and trailers are used for synchronization and error control. Cells, datagrams, messages, packets, and segments are used to describe logical data groups in various layers of OSI or based on various technologies.

  Frame-Relay

This is an industry-standard switching-type data link layer protocol that processes multiple virtual lines in inter-connected devices by using the HDLC encapsulation. Frame-Relay is more efficient than X.25.

  FTP

Stands for File Transfer Protocol. FTP, which is an application protocol, is part of the TCP/IP protocol stack used for file transfer between network nodes. FTP is defined in RFC 959.

  FXO

Stands for Foreign Exchange Office. The FXO interface is connected to the switching center of Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), and is provided by a regular phone. The FXO interface of Cisco is a station interface of the switching center or PBX on PSTN, and is a RJ-11 connector for analog connection devices.

  FXS

Stands for Foreign Exchange Station. The FXS interface is directly connected to a standard phone, and provides a ring-back tone, voltage, and a dial tone. The FXS interface of Cisco is a RJ-11 connector for basic telephone service devices, keyset, and PBX.

  G.711

This specifies the PCM voice coding technique of 64Kbps. Voice is encoded under G.711 in an appropriate format that enables digital voice transmission over either PSTN or PBX. G.711 is specified under the ITU-T standard of G-series recommendation.

  G.723.1

This is one of the H.324 standards, and specifies a compression technique that enables voice or audio signal elements to be compressed at a very low bit transmission rate. This CODEC is related to the bit transmission rates of 5.3Kpbs and 6.3Kpbs. The high bit transmission rate is based on the MLMLQ technology, and provides high quality sounds. The low bit transmission rate is based on CELP, and ensures high flexibility for system designers. This standard is specified under the G-series ITU-T standard.

  G.726

This standard specifies ADPCM coding performed at a rate of 40Kbps, 32Kbps, 24Kbps, or 16Kbps. If the PBX network is configured to support ADPCM, you can exchange ADPCM encoding voice with packet voice networks, PSTN, or PBX networks. This standard is specified under the ITU-T standard of G-series recommendation.

  G.728

This standard specifies variations that ensure low delay of CELP voice compression performed at 16Kbps. The CELP voice coding should be converted to a public telephony format for transmission over either PSTN or PSTN. This standard is specified under the ITU-T standard of G-series recommendation, and defines the CELP compression that encodes G.729 voice to a stream of 8Kbps. G.728 has two variations (G.729 and G.729 Annex A), and the variations are different in terms of calculation complexity. The two variations have voice quality similar to ADPCM of 32Kbps. G.728 is specified under the ITU-T standard of G-series recommendation.

  Gatekeeper

This is the component of the H.323 video conference system that analyzes a caller ID, controls access authorization, and manages the subnet bandwidth. A gatekeeper is H.323 entity that provides the features that enable address conversion and LAN access control to the H.323 terminal and gateway on LAN. Gatekeepers can provide other services such as bandwidth control and search for a gateway to the H.323 terminal and gateway. This device manages a device registry on a multimedia network. The devices are registered with the gatekeeper, and they request the gatekeeper to authorize a call.

  H.225

This ITU standard is applied to the session setting and packetization of H.225.0. H.225.0 specifies a variety of protocols such as RAS, Q.931, and RTP.

  H.245

This ITU standard is applied to H.245 endpoints control.

  H.323

This standard is an extension of the ITU-T standard H.320 that enables voice conferences over LAN or another packet switching network as well as video transmission over the Internet.

  HBD3

This is a type of line codes used for E1.

  HDLC

Stands for High-Level Data Link Control. HDLC is a transmission protocol used in the data link layer, which is the second layer of the 7-layer OSI model. HDLC is used in the X.25 packet switching network. Data consists of frames in HDLC, and frames are transmitted through a network. The destination verifies if the frames have been successfully transmitted. The HDLC protocol includes data for controlling data flow and troubleshooting errors in a data frame.

  Hookflash

This is a short on-hook duration of a device such as phones during a call. Hookflash means that a phone attempts to make a dial tone recall through PBX. This is usually used to perform call transfer.

  HTTP

Stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. This protocol enables a Web browser or a Web server to transfer files such as text files and graphic files.

  IPSec

Stands for Internet Protocol Security protocol. IPSec is a still developing standard for the security of networks or the packet processing layer of network communications. In the previous security techniques, security has been included in the application layers of a communication model. IPSec is particularly useful for the implementation of remote user access through dial-up access to Virtual Private Networks (VPN) and regular private networks. The main advantage of IPSec is that security can be ensured without replacing an individual user PC with a new one. Cisco takes the initiative of suggesting IPSec as the standard, and has embedded support to this feature into its network router.

  IPv6

IPv6 is the latest IP, and has been embedded into part of IP support into many products including the operating systems of PC. IPv6 is called IP Next Generation (IPng), that is the next-generation IP. IPv6 is the formal IETF standard. IPv6 is designed as an evolutional version of the currently used IP version 4. Network hosts or intermediate nodes that adopt either IPv4 or IPv6 can process any packets formulized by either IPv4 or IPv6; thus, the users and service provides can upgrade their IP to IPv6 individually without collaboration.

  ISP

Stands for Internet Service Provider. ISP refers to service providers that provide Internet access services, Web site construction and Web hosting services to individuals or enterprises. ISP has devices and communication lines required for Internet access, and large ISPs have their own high-speed dedicated lines in order to provide services that have better quality and are less dependent on telephone network service providers to their customers. The large nationwide ISPs of the U.S. are AT&T WorldNet, IBM Global Network, MCI, Netcom, UUNet, and PSINet. Those of Korea are INet, Channeli, Netsgo, and Netian. The users access the Internet through online service providers. The main online service providers of the U.S. are America Online and Compuserve, and those of Korea are Chollian, Unitel, and Hitel.

  ITU-T

Stands for International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector. This is an international organization that develops global standards on communication technologies. ITU-T performs the previous tasks of CCITT.

  IVR

Stands for Interactive Voice Response. IVR refers to a system that provides data in the form of recorded messages through phone lines as a response to user input in the form of human voice or mainly DTMF signal processing. Examples are banks that allow you to check balance by using a phone or automated stock quotations system.

  LAN

Stands for Local Area Network. This is a low-error, high-speed data network that covers relatively small geographical areas of up to several thousand meters. LAN inter-connects workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices in a building or a geographically limited area. The LAN standard specifies a cable connection and signal processing method in the physical layer and data link layer of the OSI model. Reference: MAN, WAN.

  Link

This is a network communication channel configured with lines or a transmission path between the transmitter and receiver and related devices. A link mainly refers to WAN connections, and is sometimes called a line or a transmission link.

  Loopback test

This test is performed as follows: Transmit a signal or return it to the transmitter at a location on the communication path. This loopback test is usually performed to test the availability of network interfaces.

  MAC Address

Stands for Media Access Control Address. This is a standard data link layer address required for any and all ports and devices connected to LAN. Other devices on a network use this address to locate a specific port within the network and to create or update a routing table and data structure. A MAC address is 6 bytes long, and is managed by IEEE. A MAC address is called as a hardware address, a MAC-layer address, or a physical address. Compare to: Network Address

  MAN

Stands for Metropolitan-Area Network. This network covers the entire area of a large city. The operation area of MAN is geographically larger than that of LAN; however, is smaller than that of WAN. Compare to: LAN, WAN.

  MGCP

MGCP, which is also known as H.248 or Megaco, is a standard protocol required to operate signals required during a multimedia conference or to manage sessions. This protocol defines a method of communications between the media gateway that converts the data format required for a circuit switching network to the one required for a packet switching network and the media gateway control device. MGCP may be used to set up, manage, and complete calls among multiple endpoints. Megaco and H.248 are the improved version of MGCP.

  NAT

Stands for Network Address Translation. NAT is a mechanism for reducing the need for globally unique IP addresses. NAT allows you to access the Internet as an organization whose address is not globally unique converts the address to an address space where the address can be globally routed. NAT is also called Network Address Translator.

  NTP

Stands for Network Time Protocol. NTP, which is built based on TCP, sets a local time accurately based on a wireless clock and an atomic clock on the Internet. NTP can synchronize a distributed clock in the unit of milliseconds for a long time.

  PABX

Stands for Private Automatic Branch eXchange. PABX is a switch for phones used at enterprises. PABX is used in Europe, while PBX is used in the U.S.

  Packet

A packet is a group of logical data that contains user data and a header where control data is contained. A packet mainly refers to the unit of network layer data.

  PBX

Stands for Private Branch eXchange. PBX, which is located in a subscriber building, is a digital or analog phone switchboard used to connect private networks to public phone networks.

  PING

Stands for Packet INternet Groper. ICMP echo-processes a response between messages. PING is used for an IP network to test the accessibility of network devices.

  Point to Point Connection

One of the two basic connection types. In ATM, the point to point connection may be either a one-way connection or a two-way connection between two ATM end systems.

  Pont to Multipoint Connection

One of the two basic connection types. In ATM, the point to multipoint connection is a one-way connection method that enables a transmitting end-system (root node) to be connected to multiple receiving end-systems (riff). Compare to: Point to Point Connection

  POTS

Stands for Plain Old Telephone Service. Reference: PSTN.

  PPP

Stands for Point-to-Point Protocol. This protocol is the advanced version of SLIP that enables a router-to-router connection or a host-to-network connection through synchronous or asynchronous lines. SLIP is designed to be used on an IP, while PPP is used along with network layer protocols such as IP, IPX, and ARA. PPP has a bulletin board security mechanism such as CHAP and PAP. PPP has two sub-protocols, LCP and NCP. Reference: CHAP, LCP, NCP, PAP, and SLIP

  Protocol Stack

This is a collection of communication protocols that inter-work with one another and that process communications in part or all of the seven layers of the OSI reference model. All protocol stacks are not related to each layer of the OSI model, and one protocol of a stack can process multiple layers at one time. TCP/IP is a typical protocol stack.

  PSTN

Stands for Public Switched Telephone Network. PSTN is a general term that refers to various telephone networks and services used worldwide. PSTN is also called POTS.

  PVC

Stands for either Permanent Virtual Circuit or Permanent Virtual Connection. PVC is a virtual circuit installed permanently. PVC allows you to reduce a bandwidth for setting up or releasing a circuit when a specific virtual circuit must always exist. As an ATM term, PVC is called Permanent Virtual Connection.

  Q.931 Signaling

This is an ITU standard that specifies ISDN signal processing methods. The H.225.0 standard uses a variation of Q.931 to set up or disconnect the session of H.323.

  QoS

Stands for Quality of Service. QoS is the criterion of measuring the performance (e.g. transmission quality and service availability) of a transmission system.

  RAM

Stands for Random-Access Memory. RAM is a volatile memory that can be read or written by a microprocessor.

  RAS

RAS refers to a protocol for registration, connect acknowledgement, and status protocol. RAS is used for H.323 to find or have a conversation with a gateway.

  RISC

Stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computing.

  Router

This is a network layer device that determines the optional route to which network traffic is delivered by using one or more metrics. A router forwards packets from a network to another network based on the network layer information. A router is sometimes called a gateway. (A gateway in this meaning is getting older.) Compare to: Gateway; Reference: Relay

  RS-232

This is a frequently used physical layer interface, and is known as EIA/TIA-232 nowadays.

  RTCP

Stands for RTP Control Protocol. This protocol monitors the QoS of IPv6 RTP connections, and transfers data on sessions in operation. Reference: Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)

  RTP

1. Stands for Routing Table Protocol. This VINES routing protocol based on RIP distributes network topology data, and helps the VINES server that searches for adjoining clients, servers, and routers. A delay time is used as a routing metric. Reference: SRTP 2. Stands for Rapid Transport Protocol. RTP provides facing and error recovery services to the APPN data when the data passes the APPN network. RTP allows you to check error recovery and flow control synthetically. RTP does not recover but prevents traffic congestion. 3. Stands for Real-Time Transport Protocol. This is one of the IPv6 protocols. RTP is designed to enable the synthetic network transmission feature in the application that transfers real-time data such as audio, video, and simulation data through multicast or unicast network services. RTP enables the real-time application to identify a payload type, specify a sequence number, perform time-stamping, and to monitor a transmission procedure.

  SIP

Stands for Session Initiation Protocol. SIP is an application layer control protocol based on very simple texts, and allows more than one user to make, correct, or complete a session. Examples of sessions include remote conferences, phones, meetings, event notifications, and instant messaging on the Internet. SIP is independent to lower-level packet protocols (e.g. TCP, UDP, ATM, and X.25).

  SmartViewer

This is software that allows you to monitor AP-GK1000, AP-GK2000, and AP-GK3000, which are the gatekeeper series of AddPac Technology, in a Graphical User Environment (GUI) environment in real-time and to search or manage statistical data.

  SNMP

Stands for Simple Network Management Protocol. This is a network management protocol almost dedicated to TCP/IP networks. SNMP monitors and controls network devices, and manages setup, collection of statistical data, operation performance, and security features. Reference: SGMP and SNMP2

  T1

This is the facility of a digital WAN service provider. T1 uses the AMI or B8ZS coding method to transfer DS-1 format data at a rate of 1.544Mbps over a phone switching network. Compare to: E1; Reference: AMI, B8ZS, DS-1

  TCP/IP

Stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is a general name of the protocol suites developed in the seventies by DoD of the U.S. to help build a global inter-network. TCP and IP are two of the best known protocol suites. Reference: IP and TCAP

  Telco

Stands for Telephone Company. Telco refers to a telephone service provider. Typically, Telco means individual local telephone service providers such as Bell, and sometimes includes long distance telephone service providers.

  Telnet

This is a standard terminal emulation protocol included in the TCP/IP protocol stacks. Telnet is used to connect remote terminals. Telnet allows you to log into a remote system and to use the resources like they are connected to a local system. Telnet is defined in RFC 854.

  VCI

Stands for Virtual Channel Identifier. VCI refers to a 16-bit field in the header of an ATM cell. VCI as well as VPI allows you to identify the next receiver of a cell while the cell is being delivered to the receiver through a series of ATM switches. The ATM switches use the VPI/VCI field to identify the next network VCI that the cell should pass to reach the receiver, which is the final destination. The features of VCI are similar to those of DLCI.

  VDSL

Stands for Very-high-data-rate Digital Subscriber Line. VDSL is one of the four DSL technologies. VDSL provides downstream of 13 Mbps to 52 Mbps and upstream of 1.5Mbps to 2.3Mbps through a pair of twisted copper wires. The operation range of VDSL is limited to 1,000ft to 4,500ft (304.8m to 1,372m). Compare to: ADSL, HDSL, and SDSL

  VoATM

Stands for Voice Over ATM. VoATM enables a router to deliver voice traffic (e.g. phone calling or facsimile) over an ATM network. Voice traffic is encapsulated in a specific AAL encapsulation method for multiplexed voice when voice traffic is sent in ATM.

  VoFR

Stands for Voice Over Frame Relay. VoFR enables a router to deliver voice traffic (e.g. phone calling or facsimile) over a frame relay network. When voice traffic is sent through frame relay, the voice traffic is encapsulated after being decomposed into segments by using the FRF.12 encapsulation technique to pass the frame relay network.

  VoHDLC

Stands for Voice over HDLC. Voice over HDLC enables a router to deliver live voice traffic (e.g. phone calling and facsimile) to another router through a serial line.

  VoIP

Stands for Voice over IP. VoIP is a capability that enables normal telephony voice of the same features, reliability, and voice quality as POTS to deliver over the IP-based Internet. VoIP enables a router to deliver voice traffic (e.g. phone calling and facsimile) over an IP network. Over VoIP, DSP decomposes voice signals into frames, and a pair of the decomposed frames is grouped. Then, the grouped frames are saved in a voice packet. The voice packet is forwarded by using an IP under the ITU-T standard, H.323.

  VPN

Stands for Virtual Private Network. VPN allows you to encrypt entire traffic that moves from a network to another network so that IP traffic can safely move over a public TCP/IP network. On VPN, all data is encrypted in an IP level by using the ‘tunneling’ technique.

  WAN

Stands for Wide-Area Network. WAN is a data communication network that provides services to the users in a wide area and that uses transmission services provided by regular service providers. Examples of WAN include frame relay, SMDS, and X.25. Compare to: LAN and MAN